Mastering 'The Tolstoy Effect': a research exercise in linguistic philosophy

Main Article Content

Susannah Temple


The research design and methodology are outlined in order to contextualise the key aspects of the process for developing the Temple Index of Functional Fluency (TIFF), namely the harnessing of the creativity of many people and the collaborative style of working with ongoing piloting and evaluation. The social nature of this process is shown to demand linguistic exploration of shared meanings at every stage. The results of the data analyses are presented to demonstrate how the quantitative data provided the essential framework for the qualitative search for the evidence of meaningfulness that supports and illustrates the validity and reliability of TIFF. This search for evidence can be seen to illuminate, and be illuminated by, transactional analysis ego state theory and is characterised by 'The Tolstoy Effect'.

Article Details

How to Cite
Temple, S. (2013). Mastering ’The Tolstoy Effect’: a research exercise in linguistic philosophy. International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research & Practice, 4(1), 85-98.


Allen, J. (2002) “An enduring interest in Transactional Analysis”, The Script 32:9 December 2002.
Baumrind, D. (1991) "The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use", in Journal of Early Adolescence 11, pp 56-95.
Chardin, T de (1970) Let Me Explain, (ed. & trans. by J.P. Demoulin & others), Fontana Books, London, UK.
Denscombe, M. (1998) The Good Research Guide, Open University Press, Oxford, UK.
Desforges, C. (2000) “Familiar challenges & new approaches: necessary advances in theory & methods in research on teaching & learning”, Desmond Nuttall/Carfax Memorial Lecture, British Educational Research Assossiation 2001.
Elliott, J. (1991) Action Research for Educational Change, Open University Press, Buckingham, England, UK.
Gopnik, A. (2009) The Philosphical Baby, The Bodley Head, London, UK.
Gregory, J. (2000) “Human science research: a matter of quality”, Transactional Analysis Journal Vol. 30, No. 2, pp 150-158.
Hogan R., Hogan J. & Trickey G. 1999 Selection & Development Review Vol 15 No 4 pp 3-8)
Illsley Clarke, J. (1978) Self Esteem: A Family Affair, Hazelden, Minnesota, USA.
Kemmis, S. & McTaggert, R. (1982) The Action Research Planner, Deakin University Press, Victoria, Australia.
Lanyon, R.I. & Goodstein, L.D. (1997) Personality Assessment, 3rd edition, Wiley & Sons Inc. NY, USA.
McGilchrist, B. Myers, K. & Reed, J. (1997) The Intelligent School, Sage, London, UK.
McLuhan, M. (1964) Understanding Media, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, UK.
Neuman, W.L. (1994) Social Research Methods 2nd edition, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, USA.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978) Psychometric Theory, McGraw-Hill, NY, USA.
Stokes, D. E. (1997) Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science & Technical Innovation, Brookings, Washington DC, USA.
Temple, S. (1999) “Functional fluency for educational transactional analysts”, Transactional Analysis Journal Vol. 29, No. 3, pp 164-174.
Temple, S. (2004) "Update on the functional fluency model in education", Transactional Analysis Journal Vol. 34, No. 3, pp 197-204.