Cross-cultural Study of Teacher Passivity through the Lens of Educational Transactional Analysis

Main Article Content

Anna Pierzchała
Edyta Widawska
Piotr Jusik


This article was previously published in the European Research Studies Journal, Volume XXIV, Issue 3B, 72-95, 2021, and we acknowledge with thanks the permission given by that journal to reproduce it here due to its TA content.

Like IJTARP, the ESJR is a refereed open access publication. It covers a wide variety of topics in the fields of business and economics, and can be accessed at

We have used minimal editing, which has included formatting and English spelling.

Purpose: The purpose of the article is to present the research results based on the concept of passivity in accordance with the assumptions of transactional analysis – one of the psychotherapeutic modalities in the humanistic school of thought. Passivity is defined as behaviors that block constructive and solution-oriented actions.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The main research methods included diagnostic surveys and questionnaire techniques. The study used the “Reality of an Educator” questionnaire by Anna Pierzchała (2013). 441 respondents provided their answers from Guatemala, Poland, the UK and Ukraine. The differences were identified using the Kruskal–Wallis test, the equivalent of a one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) that is commonly used for independent samples.

Findings: The comparative cross-cultural research on teacher passive behaviours indicated significant educational differences between countries. The lowest levels of passivity were reported in Guatemala [1] and the highest in Ukraine. The Hofstede Model of Cultural Dimensions enabled the authors to outline some generic tendencies concerning passive behaviours in the countries studied. Individually reported levels of passivity were bridged with cultural determinants resulting from teachers’ social functioning.

Practical Implications: The study offers some guidelines for tackling teacher passivity and identifies strategies of enhancing problem-solving skills. The most common passive behaviour across all countries was overadaptation, which underlined the importance of developing teachers’ awareness of interpersonal phenomena from the point of view of transactional analysis.

Originality/Value: The research presented has not been carried out before and at this stage has an exploratory character, indicating certain inter-culturally declared patterns and at the same time determining areas for further investigation. Transactional analysis appears to be a useful theoretical construct in the design of cross-cultural comparative studies.

Article Details

How to Cite
Pierzchała, A., Widawska, E., & Jusik, P. (2022). Cross-cultural Study of Teacher Passivity through the Lens of Educational Transactional Analysis. International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research & Practice, 13(1), 28-52.
Author Biographies

Anna Pierzchała, Jan Dlugosz University, Czestochowa, Poland

Anna Pierzchała PhD is a Reader at Jan Dlugosz University, Czestochowa, Poland and author of several TA-based articles, ORCID: 0000-0001-9529-5398. She can be contacted at

Edyta Widawska, University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland

Edyta Widawska PhD is a Professor at University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland, specialises in human rights and is author of several TA-based articles. ORCID: 0000-0002-0964-0341. She can be contacted at

Piotr Jusik, IFLOWCOACHING Consultancy and the Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y Cultural

Piotr Jusik MSc is a Certified Transactional Analyst (Counselling), MBACP (Accred) and has an ILM 7 Diploma in Leadership & Executive Coaching. He is based in Guatemala and leads IFLOWCOACHING Consultancy and the Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y Cultural. ORCID: 0000-0001-5824-9966. He can be contacted at


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