Strokes, games and learning in groups

Main Article Content

Piotr Jusik


We thank the previous publishers for permission to re-publish this article, which previously appeared as Jusik, P. (2018) Strokes, games and learning in groups. Edukacyjna Analiza Transakcyjna, 7, 27-36. We have retained the structure and referencing of that article.

Students’ hunger for strokes plays a key role in improving learning outcomes and emotional literacy in groups. Teachers and facilitators can consciously respond to their learner’s need for recognition by paying attention to the group culture and creating a responsive environment through modelling. When learners’ hunger for strokes is unmet, they start inviting psychological games. Teachers can respond adequately by stressing options in relation to the drama triangle. Additionally, TA concepts are more effective when applied in a relationship context, as otherwise the interventions become a fruitless, simplistic and formulaic endeavour. Some group settings give rise to the role lock phenomenon, when an individual represents an issue that is collectively avoided by other members. When this is brought into awareness, the group can move forward. On the whole, learners thrive when they receive appropriate strokes and permissions that support their growth and development.

Article Details

How to Cite
Jusik, P. (2020). Strokes, games and learning in groups. International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research & Practice, 11(1), 75–79.
Author Biography

Piotr Jusik

Training to become a Certified Transactional Analyst in the Counselling field.  He is engaged in research that spans Guatemala, the UK, Poland and Ukraine and is the National Co-ordinator in Guatemala for the TA Proficiency Awards.


Berne, E. (1964). Games people play. New York: Grove Press, Inc.

Karpman, S.B. (1968). Fairytales and script drama analysis. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 7 (26), 39-43.

Levin-Landheer, P. (1982). The Cycle of Development. Transactional Analysis Journal, 12 (2), 129-139.

Moiso, C. (1985). Ego States and Transference. Transactional Analysis Journal, 15 (3), 194-201.

Napper, R.& Newton, T. (2014). Tactics: Transactional analysis concepts for all trainers, teachers and tutors plus insight into collaborative learning strategies. Ipswich: TA Resources.

Pierzchała, A. (2013). Pasywność w szkole: Diagnoza zjawiska z punktu widzenia analizy transakcyjnej. Częstochowa: Wydawnictwo im. Stanisława Podobińskiego Akademii im. Jana Długosza.

Roberts, D.L. (1975). Treatment of Cultural Scripts. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 5 (1), 29-35.

Sills, C. (2003). Role Lock: When the Whole Group Plays a Game. Transactional Analysis Journal, 33 (4), 282-287.

Spitz, R.A. (1945). Hospitalism. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1 (1), 53-74.

Steiner, C. (1971). The Stroke Economy. Transactional Analysis Journal, 1 (3) 9-15.

Stewart I.& Joines V. (2009). TA Today. A New Introduction to Transactional Analysis, Nottingham, England and Chapel Hill, NC: Lifespace Publishing

Summers, G.& Tudor, K. (2000). Co-creative. Transactional Analysis Journal, 30 (1), 23-40.